Trypanosoma brucei has two DNA compartments: the nucleus and the kinetoplast. DNA replication of these two compartments only partially coincides. Woodward and Gull [J Cell Sci 1990;95:49-57] comprehensively studied the relative timing of the replication and segregation of nuclear and kinetoplast DNA. Others have since assumed the consistency of morphological indicators of cell-cycle stage among strains and conditions. We report the use of quantitative DAPI imaging to determine the cell-cycle stage of individual procyclic cells. Using this approach, we found that kinetoplast elongation occurs mainly during nuclear S phase and not during G2, as previously assumed. We confirmed this finding by sorting cells by DNA content, followed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, simultaneous quantitative imaging at two wavelengths can be used to determine the abundance of cell-cycle-regulated proteins during the cell cycle. We demonstrate this technique by co-staining for the non-acetylated state of lysine 4 of histone H4 (H4K4), which is enriched during nuclear S phase.