Variant histones play critical roles in transcriptional activation and repression, DNA repair and chromosome segregation. We have identified HTV, a single-copy gene in Trypanosoma brucei encoding a variant form of histone H3 (H3V). H3V is present at discrete nuclear foci that shift over the course of the cell cycle and associate with the mitotic spindle, a pattern of localization reminiscent of that described previously for both mini-chromosomes and telomeres. By combining fluorescence in situ hybridization with indirect immunofluorescence, we confirmed that the H3V foci overlap with a 177-bp repetitive sequence element found predominantly in mini-chromosomes, as well as with the TTAGGG repeats that compose telomeres. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies, however, reveal that only the telomeric repeat DNA is substantially enriched with H3V. HTV is not essential for viability, mini-chromosome segregation, telomere maintenance or transcriptional silencing at the telomere-proximal expression sites from which bloodstream-form T. brucei controls antigenic variation. We propose that H3V represents a novel class of histone H3 variant, a finding that has evolutionary implications.